What Do YouWant?

Good Grammar, or Good Taste?

Remember the “Winston Tastes Good Like A Cigarette Should”commercial?  An English teacher responded that the commercial should say “…As A Cigarette Should.”  Winston responded with “What Do YouWant?  Good Grammar, or Good Taste?”

 

Commonly Misused Words and Phrases

And . . .

Synonyms,Homonyms, Antonyms, and Number Expansions

 

Words that sound alike (homonyms):

Accept, Except:

Accept is a verb meaning “to receive.” Except is usually a preposition meaning “excluding.” I will accept all the packages except that one. Except is also a verb meaning “to exclude.” Please except that item from the list.

Affect, Effect:

Affect is usually a verb meaning “to influence.” Effect isusually a noun meaning “result.” The drug did not affect the disease, and it had several adverse side effects. Effect can also be averb meaning “to bring about.” Only the president can effect such adramatic change.

Allusion, Illusion:

An Allusion is an indirect reference. An illusion is a misconception or false impression. Did you catch my allusion to Shakespeare? Mirrors give the room an illusion of depth.

Altar/alter

An altar is a table or stand upon which religious ceremonies are performed.

Alter means "to change": Sally, have you altered your hair color?

Desert/dessert

A desert is a dry, sandy place. You place the accent on the first syllable (say"DEH-zert"). It is also an old-style word for "something that is deserved." Nowadays the second meaning only surfaces in the phrase "just deserts." That's just as in "fair," not just as in "only." Whew, this gets more and more confusing, eh?

 

Note: When“desert” is used as a verb, it means “to leave empty or alone” or “to abandon.”

Dessert is the sweet stuff you generally eat after a meal. You accent the second syllable (say"deh-ZERT").

Capital, Capitol:

Capital refers to a city, capitol to a building where lawmakers meet. Capital also refers to wealth or resources. The capitol has undergone extensive renovations. The residents of the state capital protested the development plans.

Climactic, Climatic:

Climactic is derived from climax, the point of greatest intensity in a series or progression of events. Climatic is derived from climate; it refers to meteorological conditions. The climactic period in the dinosaurs’ reign was reached just before severe climatic conditions brought on the ice age.

Elicit, Illicit:

Elicit is a verb meaning “to bring out” or “to evoke.” Illicit is an adjective meaning “unlawful.” The reporter was unable to elicit information from the police about illicit drug traffic.

Emigrate from, Immigrate to:

Emigrate means “to leave one country or region to settle in another.” In 1900, my grandfather emigrated from Russia. Immigrate means “to enter another country and reside there.” Many Mexicans immigrate to the U.S. to find work.

Hints: Emigrate begins with the letter “E”, as does Exit. When you emigrate, you exit a country. Immigrate begins with the letter “I”, as does In. When you immigrate, you go into a country

 

Farther/further

Both these words mean "more far. "Farther refers to physical distance: that is, more far in terms that can be measured in inches (or centimeters if you prefer metric). Further refers to more abstract differences: for example, the difference between two people's points of view.

 
Hawaii is farther from New York than from Dallas.
 
Tom's explanation of what happened is further from the truth than Bill's.

 

Good/well

Simply put, "well" is an adverb, whereas "good" is an adjective. To illustrate, let's take an easier example: happy is an adjective; happily is the corresponding adverb.

 

Sally smiled happily.
Sally's smile was happy.
Conan fights well.
Conan's fighting is good.

In the majority of cases, the adverb/adjective pair is easy to understand because, as with happy/happily, they are similar. Well/good confuses us because the two words are so different.

Lose/Loose – Some people just can’t grasp the idea that these two words are totally different – LOSE means “to be unsuccessful in retaining possession of” or “to be deprived of,” whereas LOOSE means “not fastened, restrained, or contained”

Principle, Principal:

Principal is a noun meaning “the head of a school or an organization” or “a sum of money.” Principle is a noun meaning “a basic truth or law.” The principal taught us many important life principles.

Hint:

To recognize the spelling of Principal first think of yourself as a greedy opportunist. You definitely would want to be a “pal” of anyone who is in a position of power or anything to do with money. This principal has “pal” in it.

Than, Then:

Than is a conjunction used in comparisons; then is an adverb denoting time. That pizza is more than I can eat. Tom laughed, and then we recognized him.

Hints: Than is used to compare; both words have the letter “a” in them.

Then tells when; both are spelled the same, except for the first letter.

There, Their, They’re:

There is an adverb specifying place; it is also an expletive. Adverb: Sylvia is lying there unconscious.  Expletive: There are two plums left. Their is a possessive pronoun. They’re is a contraction of they are. Fred and Jane finally washed their car. They’re laterthan usual today.

Hints: If you are using there to tell the reader where, both words have h-e-r-e. Here is also a place.  If you are using their as a possessive pronoun, you are telling the reader what "they” own. Their has h-e-i-r, which also means heir, as in someone who inherits something. Both words have to do with ownership.

They’re is a contraction of they are. Sound out “they are” in the sentence and see if it works. If it does not, it must be one of the previous versions.

To, Too, Two:

To is a preposition; too is an adverb; two is a number.  Too many of your shots slice to the left, but the last two were right on the mark.

Hints:  If you are trying to spell out the number, it is always t-w-o.   Two has a “w” which is the first letter in “word.” The opposite of word is number.

Too is usually used as also when adding or including some additional information. Whenever you want to include something else, think of it as adding; therefore you also need to add an extra “o.”

Who/Whom

These words are relative pronouns. Use "who" when it is the subject of the sentence, "whom" when it is the object. Here's a very simple rule that should always work: Try replacing the word "who/whom" with "he/him." If "he" is correct, "who" is correct. If "him" is correct, "whom" is correct.

 

He is my brother.
Who is your brother?
 
I'm looking at him.
You're looking at whom?

Your, You’re:

Your is a possessive pronoun; you’re is a contraction of you are. You’re going to catch a cold if you don’t wear your coat.

Hints:  Sound out you are in the sentence. If it works in the sentence it can be written as you’re. If it sounds awkward, it is probably supposed to be Your.

EXAMPLE: You’re shoes are muddy. "You are shoes are muddy" does not work, so it should be written as: Your shoes are muddy.

Words that don’t sound alike but confuse us anyway:

Lie, Lay:

Lie is an intransitive verb meaning “to recline or rest on a surface.” Its principal parts are lie, lay, lain. Lay is a transitive verb meaning “to put or place.” Its principal parts are lay, laid. Lie, of course, when used as a noun, means an untruth or falsehood. Lie when used as a verb, means to tell a falsehood. Such as: “That is a lie!” “Who told you to lie?”

Hint: Chickens lay eggs. I lie down when I am tired.

Set, Sit:

Set is a transitive verb meaning “to put” or “to place.” Its principal parts are set, set, set. Sit is an intransitive verb meaning “to be seated.” Its principal parts are sit, sat, sat. She set the dough in a warm corner of the kitchen. The cat sat in the warmest part of the room.

Who, Which, That:

Do not use which to refer to persons. Use who instead. That, though generally used to refer to things, may be used to refer to a group or class of people. I just saw a boy who was wearing a yellow banana costume. I have to go to math next, which is my hardest class. Where is the book that I was reading?

Problem phrases:

Supposed to: Do not omit the “d.” Suppose to is incorrect.

Used to: Same as above. Do not write use to.

Toward: There is no “s” at the end of the word.

Anyway: Also has no ending “s.” Anyways is nonstandard.

Couldn’t care less: Be sure to make it negative. (Not I could care less.)

All walks of life: Not woks of life. This phrase does not apply to oriental cooking.

Chest of drawers: Not chester drawers.

For all intents and purposes: Not intensive purposes.

Contractions or Definitions? Which sounds better: “I’ve got ten dollars” or “I have ten dollars?”  While “I’ve got” is technically correct, the definition of the contraction is “I have,” which would sound awkward if you said “I have got ten dollars.”  It is more concise to say “I have ten dollars,” which means the same, but is more correct.

And etc.

Etc. is short for the Latin et cetera which means literally "and so forth." Therefore, when you say "and etc." you're really saying "and and so forth." This is clearly redundant. Just say "etc" (or preferably "et cetera"). (It may help you to remember that "etc" was once abbreviated &c.)

 

ATM Machine

The letters ATM stand for "Automated Teller Machine." Therefore, when you say "ATM Machine" you're really saying "Automated Teller Machine Machine." This is obviously redundant. Just say "I'm going to the ATM."

I vs. Me

Jane and me are going to town. – INCORRECT

This car belongs to Jane and I. – INCORRECT

"I" is a pronoun that must be the subject, never the object, of a verb. "Me" is a pronoun that must be the object, never the subject. (The same is true for he/him, she/her, we/us, etc.)

As a simple test, try removing Jane from the sentence. You wouldn't say "Me is going to town." You'd say "I am going to town," so say "Jane and I are going to town." You wouldn't say "This car belongs to I," you'd say "This car belongs to me," so say "This car belongs to Jane and me."

Ending a Sentence with a Preposition

Contrary to popular belief, there is no agreement on this one among English professionals. In general, especially if your audience is strict about rules, don't end a sentence with a preposition. Prepositions are little words that indicate position and such: with, at, by, from, etc. In general a preposition should come before ("pre"-position) the noun it modifies. So you should change

 
“That's the man I must talk to.”

 

to

 
“That's the man to whom I must talk.”  To make it simpler, just say “I must talk to that man.”

 

 

Dangling Participles

 

A participle is a verb-form that ends in -ing. It is called "dangling" when it doesn't agree with its subject.

 
While walking down the street, a car caught Bob's attention.

 

The subject of the sentence is "a car," but it is not the car that is doing the walking, therefore the participle "walking" is dangling.

 

To correct the sentence, write:

 
While walking down the street, Bob noticed a car.

 

or

 
A car caught Bob's attention as he walked down the street.

Remember that not all words that end in -ing are participles (e.g. thing) and some participles are gerunds depending on context. (A gerund is a participle that is functioning as a noun, e.g. "My favorite activity is sleeping.")

 

Use of its and it's: Its is a possessive adjective. It means 'belonging to it': Put the parrot back in its cageIt'sis a shortened form of 'it is': It's raining again.

Acronym-- a word (as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging), Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation), Cop (Constable on Patrol), Police (Protective Organization for Life and Investment in Civil Establishment), or snafu (Situation Normal All Fu**ed Up) formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term – Acronym Converter

Antonym-- a word of opposite meaning – eg: the usual antonym of good is bad

Homonym-- one of two or more words spelled and pronounced alike but different in meaning (as the noun quail and the verb quail)

Homograph-- one of two or more words spelled alike but different in meaning or derivation or pronunciation (as the bow of a ship, a bow and arrow)

Homophone-- one of two or more words pronounced alike but different in meaning or derivation or spelling (as the words to, too, and two)

Synonym-- one of two or more words or expressions of the same language that have the same or nearly the same meaning in some or all senses

Hyponyms-- a word that represents different categories covered by a superordinate

 

Superordinate-- a generalterm that includes various different words representing narrower categories

 

Meronyms-- a wordthat names a part of a given word – eg: ‘brim’ and ‘crown’ are meronyms of hat

 

Holonyms-- a wordthat names the whole of which a given word is a part – eg: hat is a holonym for ‘brim’ and ‘crown’

 

Hypernyms-- a wordthat is more generic than a given word

 

. . .and a little fun . ..

 

Mamanym – southern usage meaning “mama and them” – eg: “I went to seemamanym yesterday.”

 

M&M – melts in your mouth, not in your hands

 

e.g.or i.e. ? -- The abbreviatione.g. (from the Latin exempli gratia, 'for sake of an example') indicates thatone or more examples follow of what has been mentioned in general terms: It couldbe cheaper by public transport, e.g. by train or coach. The abbreviation i.e.(from Latin id est, 'that is') indicates that an explanation follows of whathas just been mentioned: Gratuities are discretionary, i.e. you don't have toleave a tip if you don't want to.

When in doubt, buy a Dictionary or Thesaurus or go back to the 5th Grade

Or click below

Dictionary    Thesaurus  Translator

 

Computer Values:

 

Bit (b): on charge (1 or true) or off charge (0 or false) – short for Binary Digit

Nibble: four bits or ½ byte

Byte (B): eight bits (a character/numberrepresented by a byte)

Kilobyte (2^10):one thousand bytes (KB): 1,024

Megabyte (2^10):one million bytes (MB): 1,048,576

Gigabyte (2^30):one billion bytes (GB): 1,073,741,824

Terabyte (2^40):one trillion bytes (TB): 1,099,511,627,776

Petabyte (2^50):one quadrillion bytes (PB): 1,125,899,906,842,624

Exabyte (2^60):1,000 Petabytes (EB): 1,152,921,504,606,846,976

Zettabyte (2^70):1,000 Exabytes (ZB): 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424

Yottabyte (2^80):1,000 Zettabytes (YB): 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176

 

Decisecond: one-tenth of a second: 1/10

Centisecond: one-hundredth of a second: 1/100

Millisecond: one-thousandth of a second(ms): 1/1,000

Microsecond: one-millionth of a second(us): 1/1,000,000

Nanosecond: one-billionth of a second (ns):1/1,000,000,000

Picosecond: one-trillionth of a second(ps): 1/1,000,000,000,000

 

Hertz: cycles per second (Hz)

Kilohertz: thousands of cycles per second(KHz) = 1,000 Hz

Megahertz: millions of cycles per second(MHz) = 1,000 KHz

Gigahertz: billions of cycles per second(GHz) = 1,000 MHz

 

 

SI (Système Internationald’ Unitès) Values:

 

yocto (y) = 10-24= 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001

zepto (z) = 10-21= 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.001

atto (a) = 10-18= 0.000.000.000.000.000.001

femto (f) = 10-15= 0.000.000.000.000.001

pico (p) = 10-12= 0.000.000.000.001

nano (n) = 10-9= 0.000.000.001

micro (µ) = 10-6= 0.000.001

milli (m) = 10-3= 0.001

centi (c) = 10-2= 0.01

deci (d) = 10-1= 0.1

100 = 1

101 = 10 (deca) -- da

102 = 100 (hecto)-- h

103 = 1,000(kilo) – k (thousand)

106 = 1,000,000 (mega) – M(million)

109 = 1,000,000,000 (giga) – G (billion)

1012 = 1,000,000,000,000 (tera) – T (trillion)

1015 = 1,000,000,000,000,000(peta) – P (quadrillion)

1018 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000(exa) – E (quintillion)

1021 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(zeta) – Z (sextillion)

1024 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(yotta) – Y (septillion)

1027 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(octillion)

1030 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(nonillion)

1033 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(decillion)

1036 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(undecillion)

1039 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(duodecillion)

1042 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(tredecillion)

1045 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(quattuordecillion)

1048 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(quindecillion)

1051 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(sexdecillion)

1054 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(septendecillion)

1057 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(octodecillion)

1060 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(novemdecillion)

1063 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000(vigintillion)

1066 = unvigintillion

1069 = duovigintillion

1072 = trevigintillion

1075 = quattuorvigintillion

1078 = quinvigintillion

1081 = sexvigintillion

1084 = septenvigintillion

1087 = octovigintillion

1090 = novemvigintillion

1093 = trigintillion

1096 = untrigintillion

1099 = duotrigintillion

10100 = googol

10102 = tretrigintillion

10105 = quattuortrigintillion

10108 = quintrigintillion

10111 = sextrigintillion

10114 = septentrigintillion

10117 = octotrigintillion

10120 = novemtrigintillion

10123 = quadragintillion

10126 = unquadragintillion

10129 = duoquadrigintillion

10132 = trequadragintillion

10135 = quattuorquadragintillion

10138 = quinquadragintillion

10141 = sexquadragintillion

10144 = septenquadragintillion

10147 = octoquadragintillion

10150 = novemquadragintillion

10153 = quinquagintillion

10156 = unquinquagintillion

10159 = duoquinquagintillion

10162 = trequinquagintillion

10165 = quattuorquinquagintillion

10168 = quinquinquagintillion

10171 = sexquinquagintillion

10174 = septenquinquagintillion

10177 = octoquinquagintillion

10180 = novemquinquagintillion

10183 = sexagintillion

10186 = unsexagintillion

10189 = duosexagintillion

10192 = tresexagintillion

10195 = quattuorsexagintillion

10198 = quinsexagintillion

10201 = sexsexagintillion

10204 = septensexagintillion

10207 = octosexagintillion

10210 = novemsexagintillion

10213 = septuagintillion

10216 = unseptuagintillion

10219 = duoseptuagintillion

10222 = treseptuagintillion

10225 = quattuorseptuagintillion

10228 = quinseptuagintillion

10231 = sexseptuagintillion

10234 = septenseptuagintillion

10237 = octoseptuagintillion

10240 = novemseptuagintillion

10243 = octogintillion

10246 = unoctogintillion

10249 = duooctogintillion

10252 = treoctogintillion

10255 = quattuoroctogintillion

10258 = quinoctogintillion

10261 = sexoctogintillion

10264 = septoctogintillion

10267 = octooctogintillion

10270 = novemoctogintillion

10273 = nonagintillion

10276 = unnonagintillion

10279 = duononagintillion

10282 = treonagintillion

10285 = quattuornonagintillion

10288 = quinnonagintillion

10291 = sexnonagintillion

10294 = septennonagintillion

10297 = octononagintillion

10300 = novemnonagintillion

10303 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000 (centillionor 1000101)

 

googol = 1 followed by 100 zeroes or: 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

 

googolplex = 1010,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

 

*or *

 

One googolplex can also bewritten as a 1followed by 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 zeroes.

 

 

Pi (π):

A number, represented bysaid letter, expressing the ratio of the circumference of a perfect circle toits diameter.

December 6, 2002

Tokyo - Ateam of researchers at a leading national university have set a world record bycalculating the value of pi to 1.2411trillion places, one of the researchers said on Friday.

Pi is the mathematical ratio used to measure the area of circles and itsdecimal points are infinite.

Professor Yasumasa Kanada and nine other researchers at the Information Technology Centre at TokyoUniversity calculated the value for Pi, with a Hitachi supercomputer, for over 400 hours in September, project

 

 

 

team member Makoto Kudo said.

The new calculation is more than six times the number of places in the recordcurrently recognized by Guinness World Records – 206.158billion places - which Kanada also helped calculate in 1999.

Kanada's team spent five years designing the programused to calculate Pi in the September experiment to test the efficiency of the supercomputer, Kudo said.

The Hitachi supercomputer is capable of two trillion calculations per second, or twice asfast as the one used for the current Guinness record calculation.

[Ed. Note:  Isn’t the question “Why?” rather than “How?”]

 

Pi is used to measure yourhat or cap size. 

1. Measure the circumference of your headusually about ¾ " to 1 above eyebrows.

2. Measure snugly to 1/8"for an accurate number. 

3. Divide by pi ( 3.1415 ) to find your hat size.

1/8” = .125 inches

1/4" = .250 inches

3/8” = .375 inches

1/2" = .500 inches

5/8” = .625 inches

3/4” = .750 inches

7/8” = .875 inches

For example:  If the circumference of your head is 23 1/8inches, divide 23.125 by 3.1415.  The diameter of your head is 7.36 inches.  Your hat or capsize is 7 1/8.

 

 

The first 10,000digits of Pi are listed below.

3.

1415926535 8979323846 2643383279 5028841971 6939937510 5820974944 5923078164 0628620899 8628034825 3421170679 8214808651 3282306647 0938446095 5058223172 5359408128 4811174502 8410270193 8521105559 6446229489 5493038196 4428810975 6659334461 2847564823 3786783165 2712019091 4564856692 3460348610 4543266482 1339360726 0249141273 7245870066 0631558817 4881520920 9628292540 9171536436 7892590360 0113305305 4882046652 1384146951 9415116094 3305727036 5759591953 0921861173 8193261179 3105118548 0744623799 6274956735 1885752724 8912279381 8301194912 9833673362 4406566430 8602139494 6395224737 1907021798 6094370277 0539217176 2931767523 8467481846 7669405132 0005681271 4526356082 7785771342 7577896091 7363717872 1468440901 2249534301 4654958537 1050792279 6892589235 4201995611 2129021960 8640344181 5981362977 4771309960 5187072113 4999999837 2978049951 0597317328 1609631859 5024459455 3469083026 4252230825 3344685035 2619311881 7101000313 7838752886 5875332083 8142061717 7669147303 5982534904 2875546873 1159562863 8823537875 9375195778 1857780532 1712268066 1300192787 6611195909 2164201989 3809525720 1065485863 2788659361 5338182796 8230301952 0353018529 6899577362 2599413891 2497217752 8347913151 5574857242 4541506959 5082953311 6861727855 8890750983 8175463746 4939319255 0604009277 0167113900 9848824012 8583616035 6370766010 4710181942 9555961989 4676783744 9448255379 7747268471 0404753464 6208046684 2590694912 9331367702 8989152104 7521620569 6602405803 8150193511 2533824300 3558764024 7496473263 9141992726 0426992279 6782354781 6360093417 2164121992 4586315030 2861829745 5570674983 8505494588 5869269956 9092721079 7509302955 3211653449 8720275596 0236480665 4991198818 3479775356 6369807426 5425278625 5181841757 4672890977 7727938000 8164706001 6145249192 1732172147 7235014144 1973568548 1613611573 5255213347 5741849468 4385233239 0739414333 4547762416 8625189835 6948556209 9219222184 2725502542 5688767179 0494601653 4668049886 2723279178 6085784383 8279679766 8145410095 3883786360 9506800642 2512520511 7392984896 0841284886 2694560424 1965285022 2106611863 0674427862 2039194945 0471237137 8696095636 4371917287 4677646575 7396241389 0865832645 9958133904 7802759009 9465764078 9512694683 9835259570 9825822620 5224894077 2671947826 8482601476 9909026401 3639443745 5305068203 4962524517 4939965143 1429809190 6592509372 2169646151 5709858387 4105978859 5977297549 8930161753 9284681382 6868386894 2774155991 8559252459 5395943104 9972524680 8459872736 4469584865 3836736222 6260991246 0805124388 4390451244 1365497627 8079771569 1435997700 1296160894 4169486855 5848406353 4220722258 2848864815 8456028506 0168427394 5226746767 8895252138 5225499546 6672782398 6456596116 3548862305 7745649803 5593634568 1743241125 1507606947 9451096596 0940252288 7971089314 5669136867 2287489405 6010150330 8617928680 9208747609 1782493858 9009714909 6759852613 6554978189 3129784821 6829989487 2265880485 7564014270 4775551323 7964145152 3746234364 5428584447 9526586782 1051141354 7357395231 1342716610 2135969536 2314429524 8493718711 0145765403 5902799344 0374200731 0578539062 1983874478 0847848968 3321445713 8687519435 0643021845 3191048481 0053706146 8067491927 8191197939 9520614196 6342875444 0643745123 7181921799 9839101591 9561814675 1426912397 4894090718 6494231961
5679452080 9514655022 5231603881 9301420937 6213785595 6638937787 0830390697 9207734672 2182562599 6615014215 0306803844 7734549202 6054146659 2520149744 2850732518 6660021324 3408819071 0486331734 6496514539 0579626856 1005508106 6587969981 6357473638 4052571459 1028970641 4011097120 6280439039 7595156771 5770042033 7869936007 2305587631 7635942187 3125147120 5329281918 2618612586 7321579198 4148488291 6447060957 5270695722 0917567116 7229109816 9091528017 3506712748 5832228718 3520935396 5725121083 5791513698 8209144421 0067510334 6711031412 6711136990 8658516398 3150197016 5151168517 1437657618 3515565088 4909989859 9823873455 2833163550 7647918535 8932261854 8963213293 3089857064 2046752590 7091548141 6549859461 6371802709 8199430992 4488957571 2828905923 2332609729 9712084433 5732654893 8239119325 9746366730 5836041428 1388303203 8249037589 8524374417 0291327656 1809377344 4030707469 2112019130 2033038019 7621101100 4492932151 6084244485 9637669838 9522868478 3123552658 2131449576 8572624334 4189303968 6426243410 7732269780 2807318915 4411010446 8232527162 0105265227 2111660396 6655730925 4711055785 3763466820 6531098965 2691862056 4769312570 5863566201 8558100729 3606598764 8611791045 3348850346 1136576867 5324944166 8039626579 7877185560 8455296541 2665408530 6143444318 5867697514 5661406800 7002378776 5913440171 2749470420 5622305389 9456131407 1127000407 8547332699 3908145466 4645880797 2708266830 6343285878 5698305235 8089330657 5740679545 7163775254 2021149557 6158140025 0126228594 1302164715 5097925923 0990796547 3761255176 5675135751 7829666454 7791745011 2996148903 0463994713 2962107340 4375189573 5961458901 9389713111 7904297828 5647503203 1986915140 2870808599 0480109412 1472213179 4764777262 2414254854 5403321571 8530614228 8137585043 0633217518 2979866223 7172159160 7716692547 4873898665 4949450114 6540628433 6639379003 9769265672 1463853067 3609657120 9180763832 7166416274 8888007869 2560290228 4721040317 2118608204 1900042296 6171196377 9213375751 1495950156 6049631862 9472654736 4252308177 0367515906 7350235072 8354056704 0386743513 6222247715 8915049530 9844489333 0963408780 7693259939 7805419341 4473774418 4263129860 8099888687 4132604721 5695162396 5864573021 6315981931 9516735381 2974167729 4786724229 2465436680 0980676928 2382806899 6400482435 4037014163 1496589794 0924323789 6907069779 4223625082 2168895738 3798623001 5937764716 5122893578 6015881617 5578297352 3344604281 5126272037 3431465319 7777416031 9906655418 7639792933 4419521541 3418994854 4473456738 3162499341 9131814809 2777710386 3877343177 2075456545 3220777092 1201905166 0962804909 2636019759 8828161332 3166636528 6193266863 3606273567 6303544776 2803504507 7723554710 5859548702 7908143562 4014517180 6246436267 9456127531 8134078330 3362542327 8394497538 2437205835 3114771199 2606381334 6776879695 9703098339 1307710987 0408591337 4641442822 7726346594 7047458784 7787201927 7152807317 6790770715 7213444730 6057007334 9243693113 8350493163 1284042512 1925651798 0694113528 0131470130 4781643788 5185290928 5452011658 3934196562 1349143415 9562586586 5570552690 4965209858 0338507224 2648293972 8584783163 0577775606 8887644624 8246857926 0395352773 4803048029 0058760758 2510474709 1643961362 6760449256 2742042083 2085661190 6254543372 1315359584 5068772460
2901618766 7952406163 4252257719 5429162991 9306455377 9914037340 4328752628 8896399587 9475729174 6426357455 2540790914 5135711136 9410911939 3251910760 2082520261 8798531887 7058429725 9167781314 9699009019 2116971737 2784768472 6860849003 3770242429 1651300500 5168323364 3503895170 2989392233 4517220138 1280696501 1784408745 1960121228 5993716231 3017114448 4640903890 6449544400 6198690754 8516026327 5052983491 8740786680 8818338510 2283345085 0486082503 9302133219 7155184306 3545500766 8282949304 1377655279 3975175461 3953984683 3936383047 4611996653 8581538420 5685338621 8672523340 2830871123 2827892125 0771262946 3229563989 8989358211 6745627010 2183564622 0134967151 8819097303 8119800497 3407239610 3685406643 1939509790 1906996395 5245300545 0580685501 9567302292 1913933918 5680344903 9820595510 0226353536 1920419947 4553859381 0234395544 9597783779 0237421617 2711172364 3435439478 2218185286 2408514006 6604433258 8856986705 4315470696 5747458550 3323233421 0730154594 0516553790 6866273337 9958511562 5784322988 2737231989 8757141595 7811196358 3300594087 3068121602 8764962867 4460477464 9159950549 7374256269 0104903778 1986835938 1465741268 0492564879 8556145372 3478673303 9046883834 3634655379 4986419270 5638729317 4872332083 7601123029 9113679386 2708943879 9362016295 1541337142 4892830722 0126901475 4668476535 7616477379 4675200490 7571555278 1965362132 3926406160 1363581559 0742202020 3187277605 2772190055 6148425551 8792530343 5139844253 2234157623 3610642506 3904975008 6562710953 5919465897 5141310348 2276930624 7435363256 9160781547 8181152843 6679570611 0861533150 4452127473 9245449454 2368288606 1340841486 3776700961 2071512491 4043027253 8607648236 3414334623 5189757664 5216413767 9690314950 1910857598 4423919862 9164219399 4907236234 6468441173 9403265918 4044378051 3338945257 4239950829 6591228508 5558215725 0310712570 1266830240 2929525220 1187267675 6220415420 5161841634 8475651699 9811614101 0029960783 8690929160 3028840026 9104140792 8862150784 2451670908 7000699282 1206604183 7180653556 7252532567 5328612910 4248776182 5829765157 9598470356 2226293486 0034158722 9805349896 5022629174 8788202734 2092222453 3985626476 6914905562 8425039127 5771028402 7998066365 8254889264 8802545661 0172967026 6407655904 2909945681 5065265305 3718294127 0336931378 5178609040 7086671149 6558343434 7693385781 7113864558 7367812301 4587687126 6034891390 9562009939 3610310291 6161528813 8437909904 2317473363 9480457593 1493140529 7634757481 1935670911 0137751721 0080315590 2485309066 9203767192 2033229094 3346768514 2214477379 3937517034 4366199104 0337511173 5471918550 4644902636 5512816228 8244625759 1633303910 7225383742 1821408835 0865739177 1509682887 4782656995 9957449066 1758344137 5223970968 3408005355 9849175417 3818839994 4697486762 6551658276 5848358845 3142775687 9002909517 0283529716 3445621296 4043523117 6006651012 4120065975 5851276178 5838292041 9748442360 8007193045 7618932349 2292796501 9875187212 7267507981 2554709589 0455635792 1221033346 6974992356 3025494780 2490114195 2123828153 0911407907 3860251522 7429958180 7247162591 6685451333 1239480494 7079119153 2673430282 4418604142 6363954800 0448002670 4962482017 9289647669 7583183271 3142517029 6923488962 7668440323 2609275249 6035799646 9256504936 8183609003 2380929345
9588970695 3653494060 3402166544 3755890045 6328822505 4525564056 4482465151 8754711962 1844396582 5337543885 6909411303 1509526179 3780029741 2076651479 3942590298 9695946995 5657612186 5619673378 6236256125 2163208628 6922210327 4889218654 3648022967 8070576561 5144632046 9279068212 0738837781 4233562823 6089632080 6822246801 2248261177 1858963814 0918390367 3672220888 3215137556 0037279839 4004152970 0287830766 7094447456 0134556417 2543709069 7939612257 1429894671 5435784687 8861444581 2314593571 9849225284 7160504922 1242470141 2147805734 5510500801 9086996033 0276347870 8108175450 1193071412 2339086639 3833952942 5786905076 4310063835 1983438934 1596131854 3475464955 6978103829 3097164651 4384070070 7360411237 3599843452 2516105070 2705623526 6012764848 3084076118 3013052793 2054274628 6540360367 4532865105 7065874882 2569815793 6789766974 2205750596 8344086973 5020141020 6723585020 0724522563 2651341055 9240190274 2162484391 4035998953 5394590944 0704691209 1409387001 2645600162 3742880210 9276457931 0657922955 2498872758 4610126483 6999892256 9596881592 0560010165 5256375678

 

ONE DOLLAR BILL

 

Take out a one dollar bill. The one dollar bill you're looking at first came off the presses in 1957 in its present design.   This so-called paper money is in fact a cotton and linen blend, with minute red and blue silk fibers running through it. It is actually material. We've all washed it without it falling apart. A special blend of ink is used, the contents we will never know. It is overprinted with symbols and then it is starched to make it water resistant and pressed to give it that nice crisp look.

 

If you look on the front of the bill, you will see the United States Treasury Seal. On the top you will see the scales for a balanced budget.  In the center you have a carpenter's square, a tool used for an even cut. Underneath is the Key to the United States Treasury. That's all pretty easy to figure out, but what is on the back of that dollar bill is something we should all know.

 

If you turn the bill over, you will see two circles. Both circles, together, comprise the Great Seal of the United StatesThe First Continental Congress requested that Benjamin Franklin and a group of men come up with a Seal. It took them four years to accomplish this task and another two years to get it approved.

 

If you look at the left-hand circle, you will see a Pyramid. Notice the face is lighted, and the western side is dark.  This country was just beginning.   We had not begun to explore the West or decided what we could do for Western Civilization. The Pyramid is un-capped, again signifying that we were not even close to being finished. Inside the capstone you have the all-seeing eye, an ancient symbol for divinity. It was Franklin's belief that one man couldn't do it alone, but a group of men, with the help of God, could do anything.

 

IN GOD WE TRUST is on this currency. The Latin above the pyramid, ANNUIT COEPTIS, means, "God has favored ourundertaking."  The Latin below thepyramid, NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM, means,"a new order has begun." At the base of the pyramid is the RomanNumeral for 1776.   If you look at the right-hand circle, and check it carefully, you will learn that it is on every National Cemetery in the United States.  It is also on the Parade of Flags Walkway at the Bushnell, Florida National Cemetery, and is the centerpiece of most heroes’ monuments.  Slightly modified, it is the seal of the President of the United States, and it is always visible whenever he speaks, yet very few people know what the symbols mean.

 

The Bald Eagle was selected as a symbol for victoryfor two reasons: First, he is not afraid of a storm; he is strong, and he issmart enough to soar above it. Secondly, he wears no material crown.  We had just broken from the King of England.  Also, notice the shield is unsupported. This country can now stand on its own.  At the top of that shield you have a white bar signifying Congress, a unifying factor. We were coming together as one nation. In the Eagle's beak you will read, EPLURIBUS UNUM, meaning, "one nation from many people".

 

Above the Eagle, you have thirteen stars,representing the thirteen original colonies, and any clouds of misunderstanding rolling away. Again, we were coming together as one.

 

Notice what the Eagle holds in his talons. He holds an olive branch and arrows. This country wants peace, but we will never be afraid to fight to preserve peace. The Eagle always wants to face the olive branch, but in time of war, his gaze turns toward the arrows.

 

They say that the number 13 is an unlucky number. This is almost a worldwide belief. You will usually never see a room numbered 13, or any hotels or motels with a 13th floor. But think about this: 13 original colonies, 13 signers of the Declaration of Independence, 13 stripes on our flag, 13 steps on the Pyramid, 13 letters in the Latin above, 13 letters in "E Pluribus Unum", 13 stars above the Eagle, 13 bars on that shield, 13 leaves on the olive branch, 13fruits, and if you look closely, 13 arrows. And, for minorities: the 13th Amendment.

 

Who can say that a dollar doesn’t buy much?

 

 

BILL GATES’ SPEECH TO MT.  WHITNEY HIGH SCHOOL in Visalia, California.

 

Bill Gates recently dished out at a high school speech about 11 things they did not and will not learn in school. He talked about how feel-good, politically-correct teachings created ageneration of kids with no concept of reality and how this concept set them up for failure in the real world.


Rule 1: Life is notfair -- get used to it!

Rule 2: The worldwon't care about your self-esteem.  The world will expect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel good about yourself.

Rule 3: You will  NOT make $60,000 a year right out of  high school.  You won't be a vice-president with a car phone until you earn both.

Rule 4: If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss.

Rule 5: Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your grandparents had a different word for burger flipping -- they called it opportunity.

Rule 6: If you mess up, it's not your parents fault, so don't whine about your mistakes, learn from them.

Rule 7: Before you were born, your parents weren't as boring as they are now.   They got that way from paying your bills, cleaning your clothes and listening to you talk about how cool you are.  So before you save the rain forest from the parasites of your parent's generation, try delousing the closet in your own room.

Rule 8: Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life has not.  In some schools they have abolished failing grades and they'll give you as many times as you want to get theright answer.  This doesn't bear the slightest resemblance to ANYTHING inreal life.

Rule 9: Life is not divided into semesters.  You don't get summers off and very fewemployers are interested in helping you find yourself.  Do that on your own time.

Rule 10: Televisionis NOT real life.  In real life people actually have to leave the coffeeshop and go to jobs.

Rule 11: Be nice tonerds.  Chances are you'll end up working for one.

 

 

“Hardly”

From: Miriam-Webster’sCollegiate Dictionary

 

Main Entry: hard·ly

Pronunciation: 'härd-lē

Function: adverb

Date: before 12th century

 

 

1: with force : vigorously

 

2: in a severe manner :harshly

 

3: with difficulty : painfully

 

4:

a. used to emphasize a minimal amount <I hardly knewher> <almost new — hardly a scratch on it>

b: used to soften a negative <you can't hardly tell who anyone is> — G. B. Shaw>

 

5: certainly not <that news is hardly surprising>-- usage: hardly in sense 5 is used sometimes with “not” for emphasis <just another day at the office? Not hardly>. In sense 4b with a negative verb (as can't, wouldn't, didn't) it does not make a double negative but softens the negative. In“you can't hardly find a red one,” the sense is thatyou can find a red one, but only with difficulty; in “you can't find a redone,” the sense is that red ones are simply not available. Use of hardly with anegative verb is a speech form; it is most commonly heard in Southern and Midland speech areas. In other speech areas and in all discursive prose, hardlyis normally used with a positive <you can hardly find a red one..

 

 

“Where do you stay?”

 

Don’t you mean, “where do you live?”  I stay at work until I go to the housewhere I live.

 

 

“I don’t know nothing!”

 

Double negative (“don’t”and “nothing”).  Double negatives cancel each other out.   Why not say, “I don’t know anything.”

 

Look at it this way:

 

“I do not know nothing.”  Now cancel them out: “I do not know nothing.”  Now you “do know [some]thing.  That is: “Don’t use double negatives.”

 

 

Viagra

 

If you took a Viagra and it got caught in your throat, would you have a stiff neck all day?

 

If you stuck a Viagra in your ear, would it make you hard of hearing?

 

 

Airlines

 

Why do we always hear a reporter say that the National Safety and Transportation Board is conducting an investigation to determine why a plane crashed?  The answer is simple: GRAVITY.

 

 

“I’m correct, am I not?”

 

Breakdown: “I am correct.”  “Am I not correct?”  Make up your mind, then let me know.

 

 

Autopsy

 

Why do we hear that an autopsy is beingperformed on a 100-year-oldperson to determine the cause of death? The answer is simple: OLD AGE

 

“Can you tell me…?”

 

Have you ever had someone walk up to you and say “Can you tell me how far it is to the Zoo?”  You can just answer “yes” or “no” and walkaway.  They should say, “How far is the Zoo?”

 

 

Zeroand Nothing

 

The unit “Zero” and the word “Nothing” are similar, but not always the same.

For example:

5 + 0= 5 – if you add NOTHING (zero) to the number 5,you still have 5

5 x 0= 0 – if you multiply the number 5 by 0 (zero), you get 0

If they were the same, you could have 5 apples and multiply them bynothing and still have 5 – it doesn’t work that way.

 

Zero:

a: the arithmetical symbol 0 or θ‚ denoting the absence of all magnitude or quantity

 

b: additive identity; specifically the number between the set of all negative numbers and the set of all positive numbers

 

Absolute Zero (temperature): a theoretical temperature characterized by complete absence of  heat and equivalent to exactly-273.15°C or -459.67°F

 

 

Nothing:

 

1. a : something that does not exist

 

    b : the absence of all magnitude or quantity; also: zero

 

    c : nothingness

 

2. someone or something of no or slight value or size

 

Absolute Nothing: Click Here

 

 

Temperature Conversions

 

Centigrade (a.k.a. Celsius) = 5/9 Fahrenheit – 32

Centigrade = Kelvin – 273

Fahrenheit = 9/5 Centigrade + 32

Kelvin = Centigrade + 273

Rankine = Fahrenheit + 459.67

Rankine = Kelvin 9/5

Here's one example of temperature comparisons: 68 Fahrenheit is the same as 20 Celsius, 293.15 Kelvin, and 527.67 Rankine.

 

 

Measurements:

 

To Convert:                                                                              To:                                                          Multiply By:

Acres

Square Miles (Statute)

0.0015625

Acres

Square Kilometers

0.004046856

Acres

Hectares

0.404685642

Acres

Ares

40.46856422

Acres

Square Meters

4046.856422

Acres

Square Yards

4840

Acres

Square Feet

43560

Ares

Square Meters

100

Ares

Square Yards

119.599

Chains, Square (Surveyor's)

Ares

4.04686

Feet, Square

Acres

2.29568E-05

Feet, Square

Square Meters

0.09290304

Feet, Square

Square Yards

0.1111111

Feet, Square

Square Decimeters

9.290304

Feet, Square

Square Inches

144

Feet, Square

Square Centimeters

929.0304

Hectares

Square Miles

0.00386102

Hectares

Square Kilometers

0.01

Hectares

Acres

2.4710538

Hectares

Square Meters

10000

Hectares

Square Yards

11959.9

Hectares

Square Feet

107639.1

Inches, Square

Square Meters

0.00064516

Inches, Square

Square Yards

0.000771605

Inches, Square

Square Feet

0.00694444

Inches, Square

Square Centimeters

6.4516

Links, Square (Surveyor's)

Square Inches

62.7264

Links, Square (Surveyor's)

Square Centimeters

404.686

Meters, Square

Hectares

0.0001

Meters, Square

Acres

0.000247105

Meters, Square

Square Yards

1.195990046

Meters, Square

Square Feet

10.7639104

Meters, Square

Square Inches

1550.0031

Meters, Square

Square Centimeters

10000

Miles, Square Nautical

Square (Statute) Miles

1.325

Miles, Square Nautical

Square Kilometers

3.429904

Miles, Square (Statute)

Square Nautical Miles

0.755

Miles, Square (Statute)

Sections

1

Miles, Square (Statute)

Square Kilometers

2.58998811

Miles, Square (Statute)

Hectares

258.998811

Miles, Square (Statute)

Hectares

258.998811

Miles, Square (Statute)

Acres

640

Miles, Square (Statute)

Acres

640

Miles, Square (Statute)

Square Rods

102400

Miles, Square (Statute)

Square Meters

2589988.11

Miles, Square (Statute)

Square Yards

3097600

Miles, Square (Statute)

Square Feet

27878400

Rods, Square

Acres

0.00625

Rods, Square

Square Meters

25.29285

Rods, Square

Square Yards

30.25

Sections (US)

Square (Statute) Miles

1

Sections (US)

Square Kilometers

2.5899881

Townships (US)

Sections

36

Townships (US)

Square (Statute) Miles

36

Townships (US)

Square Kilometers

93.239572

Yards, Square

Square Miles

3.22831E-07

Yards, Square

Hectares

8.36127E-05

Yards, Square

Acres

0.000206612

Yards, Square

Square Meters

0.83612736

Yards, Square

Square Feet

9

Yards, Square

Square Inches

1296

Yards, Square

Square Centimeters

8361.2736

Acres

Ares

40.46856422

 

Imperial Measures to Metric

 

To Convert

To

Multiply By

Minim (UK)

Litres

5.91939E-05

Fluid drachm (UK)

Litres

0.00355163

Fluid ounce (UK)

Litres

0.0284131

Gill (UK)

Litres

0.142065

Pint (UK)

Litres

0.568261

Quart (UK)

Litres

1.13652

Gallon (UK)

Litres

4.54609

Peck (UK)

Litres

9.09218

Bushel (UK)

Litres

36.3687

 

US Liquid Measures to Metric

 

To Convert

To

Multiply By

Minim (US)

Litres

6.16115E-05

Fluid dram (US)

Litres

0.00369669

Liquid ounce (US)

Litres

0.0295735

Gill (US)

Litres

0.118294

Liquid pint (US)

Litres

0.473176

Liquid quart (US)

Litres

0.946353

Gallon (US)

Litres

3.785411784

Barrel (US)

Litres

158.987

 

US Dry Measures to Metric

 

To Convert

To

Multiply By

Dry pint (US)

Litres

0.55061

Dry quart (US)

Litres

1.10122

Peck (US)

Litres

8.80977

Bushel (US)

Litres

35.2391

Dry barrel (US)

Litres

115.627

 

Miscellaneous Cubic Measures

 

To Convert

To

Multiply By

Cubic mm

Litres

0.000001

Cubic cm

Litres

0.001

Cubic dm

Litres

1

Cubic m

Litres

1000

Cubic km

Litres

1E+12

Cubic in

Litres

0.016387064

Cubic ft

Litres

28.316846

Cubic yd

Litres

764.554858

Cubic mile

Litres

4.16818E+12

To Convert

To

Multiply By

Grains/imp. gallon

Parts/million

14.286

Grains/US gallon

Parts/million

17.118

Grains/US gallon

Pounds/million gal

142.86

Grams/cu. cm

Pounds/mil-foot

3.405E-07

Grams/cu. cm

Pounds/cu. in

0.03613

Grams/cu. cm

Pounds/cu. ft

62.43

Grams/liter

Pounds/cu. ft

0.062427

Grams/liter

Pounds/100