Greenwood Leflore and Malmaison












Library of Congress Photo Description # 1


Library of Congress Photo Description # 2


Library of Congress Photo 1


Library of Congress Photo 2


Library of Congress Photo 3


Library of Congress Photo 4


Library of Congress Photo 5


Library of Congress Photo 6


Malmaison Engineering Record



Where was Malmaison?  Map 1    Map 2




Greenwood Leflore Article from The Nashville Tennessean-- 08/27/2003


Greenwood Leflore Article from The Nashville Tennessean-- 09/03/2003



The U.S. Geological Survey lists the location of Malmaison at 207 feet elevation on the Browning map.  The map coordinates are 33 degrees 31 minutes and 20 seconds North and 090 degrees 00 minutes and 26 seconds West.



Excerpts from A History of Mississippi, Vol. 1, by Richard Aubrey McLemore, 1973. Jackson.  University & College Press of Mississippi.


[Ed. Note: The pages and footnotes listed are numbered in the respective chapter(s) of the book. They are not indicative of any footnote on this web page or website, nor do they reflect the opinions of the Webmaster.]


P. 80.  On Leflore’s Heritage:


“The growing mixed-blood community in both Indian nations had far-reaching effects on tribal economic, social, and political life.  The mixed bloods, more like their Anglo fathers than their Indian mothers, better understood the ways of the British, Spanish, and later the Americans.  They were more assertive than their full-blood counterparts and came to comprise a sort of aristocracy in the tribes.  The French legacy among the Choctaws is confirmed by the LeFlore line which produced such notables as Greenwood LeFlore.”




P. 264.  On Leflore and the removal of the Choctaws from Mississippi:


“In the early months of his administration[President Andrew] Jackson enunciated a policy which for all practical purposes gave the Indians a choice between removal or submitting to the laws of thestates.66 Subsequently the Congress of the United States passed a removal measure endorsing Jackson’s policy.67 Most of the government leaders in Indian affairs also shifted toward a stricter policy pointed toward eventual removal by force if necessary.68 Caught between the pressures of the federal government and Mississippi, the frustrated Choctaws and Chickasaws were faced with no choice but consideration of removal.”69


The Choctaw leaders assembled for a council to decide on a course of action in the dilemma which they faced.  The views of Greenwood LeFlore, who had been deposed from his rank of chief, prevailed in the council, and he was elected chief of the entire nation of Choctaws to pull all groups together.70 With LeFlore in charge, the way was opened for the negotiation of a final removal treaty.


66 Richardson, Messages, II, 1,0211,022


67 DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians, 110112.


68 An exception was General Edmund Pendleton Gaines who served with the Army in the west in the period of Indian negotiation and removal.  He stood staunchly for “fair treatment” and against removal.  See James W. Silver, “A Counter-proposal to the Indian Removal Policy of Andrew Jackson,” Journal of Mississippi History, IV, 207215.


69 Ibid., 113; Grant Foreman, Indian Removal, the Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians, 2223, 193195.


70 DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians, 114. It should be noted that LeFlore was guilty of duplicity in that he was ready to expedite emigration of his people while arranging to stay in Mississippi himself as a planter on the land he would receive for expediting the removal treaty.




P. 205,206.  On religious and cultural life:


“Methodist missionary work among the Indians of Mississippi is chiefly an extended shadow of one man, the Reverend Dr. Alexander Talley.  After nineteen years of labor as a circuit rider, Talley in 1828, at the request of the Conference, agreed to devote himself to the Choctaws in northern Mississippi.  The Methodist approach to the Indians was precisely opposite that of the Presbyterians.  Talley believed in the direct method of revivalistic preaching.  This he carried out through able native interpreters, among whom was the famous chieftain, Greenwood LeFlore, who early came under Talley’s spell.  He even attempted camp meetings among the Choctaws, apparently with considerable success. Several of the Indian converts became local preachers and one, William Winans Oakchiah, was admitted on trial at the conference of 1831. By 1832, the Methodist Church in Mississippi was laying claim to four thousand Choctaws “in communion.”  The large accession of Choctaws to the Methodist Church compares favorably with the small number of Choctaws who identified formally with other denominations.  The wide variance may be attributed either to the attractive preaching on the partof Methodists or to the laxity with which they accepted converts, or to both.  Regardless, as a result of the Indian cessions and their departure for Oklahoma, the Mississippi Conference of1835 reported only eighty-three Indian members.”120


120  Ibid. [Posey, Frontier Mission, 117.]; Cabaniss, “Religion in Ante-bellum Mississippi,” 208.






GREENWOOD LEFLORE Chief Wife - Priscilla Leflore Children - 
      Son- John D. Leflore; Daughters- Rebecca Harris, Jane; Son-in-law- James C.      Harris Grandchildren -
      Grandsons- Greenwood L. & John B. Halsey, Louis Leflore, Greenwood Leflore, Louis Harris.

       Granddaughters- Martha Davis, Florence Harris. His cemetery marker reads:  
      Greenwood Leflore, Born 3 June 1800, Died 31 Aug. 1865 Greenwood LeFlore was the son of Louis LeFlore Greenwood's mother was considered a Choctaw Indian “princess,” and Greenwood was later a chief, even though he was 3/4 French and 1/4 Choctaw. However, in the Native culture there were never any "princesses," in that there is no word for princess in any of the Native languages.  That term came about because early Europeans saw where some women were held in high regard and since the basis of their experiences were rooted in English royalty, the word princess was the closest way of describing how they interpreted this position within the tribe. 


WILL OF GREENWOOD LEFLORE Probated Sept. 1865  Carroll Co. Will Bk. A, Pg. 473  Wife- Priscilla Leflore; Son- John D. Leflore; Daughters- Rebecca Harris, Jane;  Son-in-law- James C. Harris; Grandsons- Greenwood L. & John B. Halsey, Louis Leflore, Greenwood Leflore, Louis Harris.  Mentioned- J. C. Harris, Greenwood Watkins, Daniel Jefferson, Edward Yarbrough.  Granddaughters- Martha Davis, Florence Harris.  Bequeath to Samuel T. Donley.  Owned lands in Carroll, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha & Yazoo counties in Mississippi and some in Texas.  Executor- Tanner C. Harris.  Witnesses- N. H. McCain, Saml. Hart, Wm. A. McCain.  Slaves- Amy, Hampton, William, Lizzie, Willis, Hettie.  Dated May 30, 1860, probated Sept. 1865.








Greenwood Leflore Bible Records (.pdf file)


History of Greenwood Leflore by Harris Leflore Coleman (used with permission) (.pdf file)





From The Coahomian (Friar’s Point, Miss.), Page unknown:


October 20, 1865– Colonel Greenwood Leflore died on the 31stof August, at his residence in Carroll County, aged sixty-five years.  He was in on[e] sense “the last of the Choctaws”.  He claimed his lineage from Choctaw Indians, although not of full blood. Colonel Leflore was the last chief of the Choctaws.  He remained in this State while his tribe took up their melancholy march to the lands west of the Mississippi.





From: The Conservative (Carrollton, Carroll County),P. 1, Cols. 6, 7,April, 1942.  (Photo Unintelligible.)


Malmaison Destroyed By Fire Last Tuesday Night




From Jackson Daily News, P. 1, Col. 5,April 1, 1942.


Blaze Destroys Famous Malmaison Home in Leflore


Greenwood – (AP) – Historic Malmaison, a Mississippi landmark noted as the home of Greenwood Leflore, signer of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, was destroyed last night by fire of undetermined origin.


The treaty signed by Leflore, the last chief of the Choctaw Indians east of the Mississippi river, ceded all the Choctaw lands in Mississippi to the Federal government.


The building, located on a hill 11 miles east of Greenwood, was of colonial style and frame construction. Built in 1852, it was one of the show places of north Mississippi.




From: The Greenwood Commonwealth, April 1, 1942.  P. 1.  (Photo Unintelligible.)


Historic Carriage Saved


A Better Photo of Leflore’s Carriage – now located at French Camp, MS



Malmaison items on Display at the Cottonlandia Museum at Greenwood, Mississippi.


The Malmaison Room is filled with treasures and photographs from the home of Greenwood Leflore, the last chief of the Choctaw nation east of the Mississippi, a planter and a Mississippi State Senator. Malmaison, his home which burned in 1942,was built about 20 miles from Greenwood in Carroll County, where fear of malaria and flooding were lessened by virtue of being in the hills, above the swampy delta. The home contained only the finest furnishings, many brought from France, give us a glimpse of the splendor in which he lived. One example is a drawing room set of thirty pieces of solid mahogany, finished in genuine gold and upholstered in priceless silk damask.



Louis LEFLEUR (Father of Greenwood LeFlore)


Louis Lefleur’s Parents: Henry LEFLEUR and Margaret(UNKNOWN).

Rebecca Cravat’s Parents: John CRAVAT and (Indian) NEHOTIMA

Louis Lefleur was married to Rebecca CRAVAT (daughter of Choctaw Chief Pushmataha) about 1790. Children were: William LEFLEUR, Felicity LEFLEUR, Polly LEFLEUR, Emily LEFLEUR, Winna LEFLEUR, Benjamin LEFLEUR, Greenwood LEFLORE, Basil L. LEFLEUR, Andrew Jackson LEFLEUR.


From: The Conservative, Friday, April 10, 1942.  P. 1.


Malmaison Poem



From: The Greenwood Commonwealth, April 1, 1942.  Pp. 1, 8.  (Photo Unintelligible.)


Historic Malmaison Completely Destroyed by Fire Last Night



From: The Jackson Daily News, April 2, 1942.  P. 8, Section 2.  (Poor quality image.)


Historic Landmark Burns



From: The Greenwood Commonwealth, April 1, 1942.  Page not available.


Leflore Photo Destroyed in Malmaison Fire



Greenwood Leflore and Wife



Greenwood Leflore’s Carriage



Malmaison’s Remains



Greenwood Leflore on the Porch of Malmaison



C&G Train Stop – once located at Malmaison



Choctaws Purchase Malmaison (.pdf file)


LeFlore Property Wrapped Again in Intrigue (.pdf file)



UPDATE: On June 3, 2002, I finally had a chance to visit the Cottonlandia Museum in Greenwood.  If you have not been there, GO !  The museum is fantastic, and would put many museums twice its size to shame.  I immediately felt at home when I entered the front door, and was treated like family while I was there.  It would be well worth the trip from 200 miles away, and it is a great way to spend an afternoon (or morning).  Due to time constraints, I was only able to stay an hour or so, and could have easily spent three or four hours looking around.  The staff is excellent, and it is a great place to visit.  Pictures of the Malmaison Room are listed below.


Cottonlandia Malmaison Room



Greenwood Leflore’s Will


Text of Greenwood Leflore’s Will (.pdf file)


Portrait of Rebecca Leflore – Circa 1845-1850


Photo of GreenwoodLeflore


Photo 1       Photo 2       Photo 3       Photo 4


Photo 5       Photo 6       Photo 7       Photo 8


Photo 9       Photo 10     Photo 11     Photo 12


Photo 13     Photo 14     Photo 15     Photo 16


Cottonlandia Brochure (Outside)


Cottonlandia Brochure (Inside)


Cottonlandia Handout